The most well know study in quantitative astrology is the Mars effect, first reported by the French psychologist and astrologer Michel Gauquelin. Athletes are found to be more likely to be born under certain positions of Mars in the sky, relative to their time and pace of birth. For a predictably dismissive summary, see Wikipedia. (It must be remembered that Wikipedia is an obedient rendering of the modern Western worldview, and therefore a text at two levels.)
For routes to more insight into the phenomenon, I include the footnote from Cosmos and Psyche:
See, for example, Michel Gauquelin, Cosmic Influences on Human Behavior (New York: Aurora Press, 1973). For a thorough discussion of the Mars effect, see Suitbert Ertel and Kenneth Irving, The Tenacious Mars Effect (London: The Urania Trust, 1996), and Hans J. Eysenck and David Nias, Astrology: Science or Superstition? (London: Penguin, 1982). For an account of the scandal involving attempts by the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) to discredit the Gauquelin results (the account was written by one of the committee’s founding members and chief researchers), see Dennis Rawlins, “sTARBABY,” Fate, No. 32, October 1981 (http://cura.free.fr/xv/14starbb.html). See also John Anthony West, The Case for Astrology (New York: Viking Arkana, 1991), and G. Cornelius, The Moment of Astrology.
The website http://www.astrology-and-science.com/ provides quite an extensive set of articles on the verification of astrology, including discussion of the Mars effect.
The Journal Correlation publishes current astrological research. See also Research Grants for the Critical Study of Astrology.
This page is meant to be a helpful list of resources, rather than provide a view on any particular or general controversies – this will come elsewhere in my philosophy and research. It will be updated regularly. If there are resources that you think would be worth including here (skeptical or supportive), please get in touch.